European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs

ESPAD is a collaborative network of independent research teams in more than forty European countries and the largest cross-national research project on adolescent substance use in the world. The overall aim with the project is to repeatedly collect comparable data on substance use in as many European countries as possible. The ESPAD deals with alcohol, tobacco and other drug uses among other lifestyles in adolescents. This survey was initiated Europe-wide in 1995 by the Swedish council for information on alcohol and other drugs with the support of the Council of Europe. In 2013, however, the Swedish government announced that it would discontinue its support for the international coordination from 2015, and considered that the natural place to host the coordination would be the EMCDDA. This survey takes place every four years in school settings and targets students aged 16 - the age until which schooling is mandatory in most European countries. Data collection is implemented the second quarter of the year of the survey and follows a common methodology to afford international comparisons over time.

France participates in ESPAD since 1999, with the collaboration of the Ministry of National Education and Agriculture (for agricultural vocational education). From 2003 onward, this French participation to ESPAD is under the responsibility and coordination of the OFDT, in collaboration with the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) and the French School of Public Health (EHESP).

More information on the 2015 survey can be found on the ESPAD website: with latest news on activities on the EMCDDA dedicated page:


Results of the ESPAD 2018 survey in France

In 2018, the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) and European School Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD) were carried out simultaneously for the first time in France, using a unified scientific framework. More than 20 000 middle school and high school students, representing 11- to 18-year-old adolescents attending secondary school in metropolitan France, were invited to answer an online questionnaire on their well-being and health behaviour, including their use of psychoactive substances.

Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use among French school students in 2018, Tendances n°132, June 2019


Results of the ESPAD 2015 survey in France

The 2015 survey has gathered more than 40 countries, including France for the fifth consecutive exercise. It is based on a common questionnaire focused on use, attitudes and opinions related to drugs, including short country-specific modules.
In France, a national representative sample of 6 712 students, aged from 16 to 18, completed the self-administrated questionnaire in mainland and oversea territories, between March and May 2015.
The France-specific topics were:
- Sport activities and physical or mental doping
- Depressivity and suicidal thoughts
- Exposure to alcohol marketing.

Drug use during the « lycée years » - Results of the 2015 ESPAD survey in France, Tendances n° 112, September 2016


Results from previous older ESAPAD surveys in France

Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use during the « lycée years », Tendances n° 89, November 2013

Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis at 16 years old - Initial results of the French part of the ESPAD 2007 survey, Tendances n° 64, January 2009

Psychoactive substances amongst middle school and secondary school pupils: use in 2003 and trends over the past ten years, Tendances n° 35, March 2004

Psychoactive substances used by the 14-18 year-olds attending school: 1999 ESPAD Survey, 1993-99 evolution, Tendances n° 6, February 2000

Drugs in Europe

2023 EMCDDA European Drug Report

The European Drug Report 2023: Trends and Developments presents the EMCDDA’s latest analysis of the drug situation in Europe. Focusing on illicit drug use, related harms and drug supply, the report contains a comprehensive set of national data across these themes and key harm-reduction interventions. This report is based on information provided to the EMCDDA by the EU Member States, the candidate country Türkiye, and Norway, in an annual reporting process.

  Statistical Bulletin 2023

The annual Statistical Bulletin contains the most recent available data on the drug situation in Europe provided by the Member States. These datasets underpin the analysis presented in the European Drug Report. All data may be viewed interactively on screen and downloaded in Excel format.

The European Union and the drug phenomenon

miniFAQDrugsEurope.jpgThe European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions, joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.