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National survey of low-threshold structures (CAARUDs)

Conducted every two or three years since 2006 in all CAARUDs (on mainland France and in French overseas departments), this survey determines the number of users seen in these structures, the characteristics of these users and their use patterns. Each user who enters into contact with the structure during the survey undergoes a face-to-face interview with someone working at the structure. The questions asked are on use (frequency, administration route, equipment-sharing), screening (HIV, HBV and HCV) and social situation (social coverage, housing, level of education, support from friends and family).

The 2015 survey was conducted from 14 to 27 September: 3,129 individuals completed the questionnaire and were included in the analysis. Out of the 167 CAARUDs registered in France, 143 took part in the survey (i.e. 86%). The data collection rate (proportion of users for whom the questionnaire was completed relative to all users encountered during the survey in the CAARUDs having taken part in the survey) was 64% in 2015. Persons visiting the CAARUD, predominantly vulnerable from a socioeconomic perspective, are active drug users who are not undergoing active treatment or have withdrawn from the care system.


CAARUD client profiles and practices in 2015
Tendances n° 120, October 2017

Overview of CAARUDs in 2014
Tendances n° 113, October 2016

CAARUD client profiles and practices in 2012
Tendances n° 98, January 2015

CAARUD: client profiles and practices in 2008
Tendances n° 74, December 2010

The first national survey on users of the CAARUD centres
Tendances N° 61, May 2008








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The European Drug Report 2023: Trends and Developments presents the EMCDDA’s latest analysis of the drug situation in Europe. Focusing on illicit drug use, related harms and drug supply, the report contains a comprehensive set of national data across these themes and key harm-reduction interventions. This report is based on information provided to the EMCDDA by the EU Member States, the candidate country Türkiye, and Norway, in an annual reporting process.

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miniFAQDrugsEurope.jpgThe European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions, joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.