Scientific papers

Scientific papers written by OFDT staff members and published in the international literature.




  • Cadet-Taïrou A. (2023) Finding your way in the complex area of behavioral addictions. Abstract of a presentation at the 8th International Conference on Behavioral Addictions, 23-25 August 2023, Incheon, South Korea. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, Vol. 12, Suppl. 1, p. 137.



  • Gourdet C., Gagnon F., Moscetti C., Obradovic I. (2021) Regulating private and public places of non-medical cannabis consumption in North America: Public health and public safety issues. Journal of Canadian Studies, Vol. 55, No 2 (Critical perspectives on cannabis in Canada), p. 279-306.



  • Eiden C., Vuillot O., Serre A., Gambier J., Berger A., Mathieu O., Néfau T., Sebbane M., Donnadieu-Rigole H., Peyrière H. (2019) Acute psychiatric disorders related to fake cathinone: Ephylone. Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique, Vol. 31, No 2 Suppl., p. S64. Abstract of a presentation, Joint Meeting SFTA - STC - SoHT - BLT, Lille, 21-24 May 2019.
  • Janssen E., Shah J., Néfau T., Cadet-Taïrou A. (2019) Age of initiation and patterns of use among people who inject drugs welcomed in harm reduction facilities in France from 2006 to 2015. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 51, No 3, p. 260-271.


  • Laniel L., Gandilhon M., Adès J.-E., Cunningham A., Singleton N., Sedefov R., Griffiths P. (2018) Captagon: understanding today's illicit market. EMCDDA Papers, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2018, 21 p.
  • Janssen E., Spilka S., Le Nézet O., Shah J. (2018) On the question of non-medical cognitive enhancers among in-school adolescents: prevalence, predictors and potential health-related harms. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, online first 13/07/2018, doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2018-0018.
  • Janssen E. (2018) Estimating the number of people who inject drugs: a proposal to provide figures nationwide and its application to France. Journal of Public Health [OUP], 40(2), p. e180-e188.
  • Ngantcha M., Janssen E., Godeau E., Ehlinger V., Le Nézet O., Beck F., Spilka S. (2018) Revisiting factors associated with screen time media use: A structural study among school-aged adolescents. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 15(6), p. 448-456.
  • Kraus L., Seitz N.N., Piontek D., Molinaro S., Siciliano V., Guttormsson U., Arpa S., Monshouwer K., Leifman H., Vicente J., Griffiths P., Clancy L., Feijao F., Florescu S., Lambrecht P., Nociar A., Raitasalo K., Spilka S., Vyshinskiy K., Hibell B. 'Are The Times A-Changin'? Trends in adolescent substance use in Europe. Addiction, 113(7), p. 1317-1332.
  • Belackova V., Pazitny M., Drapalova E., Martinez M., van der Gouwe D., Begley E., Kidawa M., Tomkova A., Kmetonynova D. (2018) Assessing the impact of laws controlling the online availability of 25I-NBOMe, AH-7921, MDPV and MXE – outcomes of a semi-automated e-shop monitoring. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 25(2), p. 109-117.
  • Jauffret-Roustide M., Chollet A., Santos A., Benoit T., Péchiné S., Duplessy C., Bara J.-L., Lévi Y., Karolak S., Néfau T. (2018) Theory versus practice, bacteriological efficiency versus personal habits: A bacteriological and user acceptability evaluation of filtering tools for people who inject drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 37(1), p. 106-115.


  • Sentenac M., Ehlinger V., Napoletano A., Spilka S., Gariepy G., Godeau E., Elgar F.J. (2017) Relative deprivation and episodes of drunkenness among French and Canadian adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Review, 36(6), p. 788-796.
  • Baggio S., Dupuis M., Richard J.-B., Beck F. (2017) Addictive behaviors and healthcare renunciation for economic reasons in a French population-based sample. International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.49, p. 1-7.
  • Diaz Gomez C., Ngantcha M., Le Garjean N., Brouard N., Lasbleiz M., Perennes M., Kerdiles F.J., Le Lan C., Moirand R., Bellou A. Effect of a brief motivational intervention in reducing alcohol consumption in the emergency department: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Online first 12/07/2017, doi: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000488.
  • Batisse A., Chevallier C., Azevedo Correia J., Martinez M., Hoizey G., Chèze M., Buscail S., Deveaux M., Djezzar S., Sandrine B., Samira D. (2017) Example of alert and reporting system of scopolamine poisoning among Parisian cocaine users at regional, national and European levels. European Psychiatry, Vol.41, Suppl. (Abstract of the 25th European Congress of Psychiatry), S858.
  • Sentenac M., Ehlinger V., Napoletano A., Spilka S., Gariepy G., Godeau E., Elgar F.J. Relative deprivation and episodes of drunkenness among French and Canadian adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Review, Online first 03/05/2017, doi: 10.1111/dar.12540.
  • Brunt T.M., Atkinson A.M., Néfau T., Martinez M., Lahaie E., Malzcewski A., Pazitny M., Belackova V., Brandt S.D. (2017) Online test purchased new psychoactive substances in 5 different European countries: A snapshot study of chemical composition and price. International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol.44, p. 105-114.
  • Wiessing L., Ferri M., Belackova V., Carrieri P., Friedman S.R., Folch C., Dolan K., Galvin B., Vickerman P., Lazarus J.V., Mravcik V., Kretzschmar M., Sypsa V., Sarasa-Renedo A., Uuskula A., Paraskevis D., Mendao L., Rossi D., van Gelder N., Mitcheson L., Paoli L., Diaz Gomez C., Milhet M., Dascalu N., Knight J., Hay G., Kalamara E., Simon R., EUBEST working group, Comiskey C., Rossi C., Griffiths P. (2017) Monitoring quality and coverage of harm reduction services for people who use drugs: a consensus study. Harm Reduction Journal, 14(19).
  • Pacoricona Alfaro D.L., Ehlinger V., Spilka S., Ross J., Sentenac M., Godeau E. (2017) Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Do students with mild-intellectual disability mimic students in the general population? Research in Developmental Disabilities, Vol.63, p. 118-131.
  • Obradovic I. (2017) French drug policy. In: Colson R. & Bergeron H. (Eds.) European drug policies: The ways of reform, Routledge, 2017, p. 87-99.
  • Diaz Gomez C., Martin Gonzalez E. (2017) Spanish drug policy. In: Colson R. & Bergeron H. (Eds.) European drug policies: The ways of reform, Routledge, 2017, p. 182-194.
  • Janssen E. (2017) Estimating the number of heroin users in metropolitan France using treatment centers data: an exploratory analysis. Substance Use and Misuse, 52(5), p. 683-687.
  • Marillier M., Batisse A., Richeval C., Labrouve V., Martinez M., Allorge D., Gregoire M., Batel P., Néfau T., Chevallier C., Gaulier J.-M., Djezzar S. (2017) CHEMSEX, NPS & risk reduction management: Preliminary results of a pilot study. Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique, 29(1), p. 47-56.
  • Richeval C., Humbert L., Néfau T., Martinez M., Allorge D., Gaulier J.-M. (2017) The comeback of Ecstasy: New designs and increased MDMA content. Toxicologie Analytique et Clinique, 29(1), p. 144-145.
  • Richard J.-B., Andler R., Gautier A., Guignard R., Leon C., Beck F. (2017) Effects of using an overlapping dual-frame design on estimates of health behaviors: A French general population telephone survey. Journal of Survey Statistics and Methodology, 5(2), p. 254-274.
  • Léger D., Beck F., Richard J. (2017) Sleep loss in the homeless - an additional factor of precariousness: Survey in a group of homeless people. JAMA Internal Medicine, 177(2), p. 278-279.


  • Bonnaire C., Kovess V., Guignard R., Richard J.-B., du Roscoät E., Beck F. (2016) Life events, substance use, psychological distress, and quality of life in male and female French gamblers. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 28(4), p. 263-279.
  • Pacoricona Alfaro D.L., Ehlinger V., Spilka S., Ross J., Sentenac M., Godeau E. (2016) Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use: Do students with mild-intellectual disability mimic students in the general population? Research in Developmental Disabilities, Online first 25/10/2016, doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2016.10.009.
  • Lahaie E., Janssen E., Cadet-Taïrou A. (2016) Determinants of heroin retail prices in metropolitan France: Discounts, purity and local markets. Drug and Alcohol Review, 35(5), p. 597-604.
  • Bonnaire C., Kovess-Masfety V., Guignard R., Richard J.-B., du Roscoät E., Beck F. (2016) Gambling type, substance abuse, health and psychosocial correlates of male and female problem gamblers in a nationally representative French sample. Journal of Gambling Studies, Online first 28/06/2016, doi: 10.1007/s10899-016-9628-4.
  • Legleye S., Khlat M., Mayet A., Beck F., Falissard B., Chau N., Peretti-Watel P. (2016) From cannabis initiation to daily use: Educational inequalities in consumption behaviours over three generations in France. Addiction, 111(10), p. 1856-1866.
  • Kairouz S., Paradis C., Nadeau L., Tovar M.-L., Pousset M. (2016) A cross-cultural comparison of population gambling patterns and regulatory frameworks: France and Quebec. Journal of Public Health Policy, 37(4), p. 467-482.
  • Ali A., Carré A., Hassler C., Spilka S., Vanier A., Barry C., Berthoz S. (2016) Risk factors for substances use and misuse among young people in France: what can we learn from the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Vol.163, p. 84-91.
  • Sicard S., Mayet A., Duron S., Richard J.-B., Beck F., Meynard J.-B., Deparis X. (2016) Marimoutou C. Factor associated with risky sexual behaviors among the French general population. Journal of Public Health, Online first 24/05/2016, doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdw049.
  • Martinez M., Kmetonyova D., Belackova V. (2016) A method for exploring the number of online shops selling new psychoactive substances: initial I-TREND project results. In: The internet and drug markets. EMCDDA Insights, No21, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016, p. 97-104.
  • Andler R., Guignard R., Wilquin J.L., Beck F., Richard J.B., Nguyen-Thanh V. (2016) Electronic cigarette use in France in 2014. International Journal of Public Health 61(2), p. 159-165.
  • Baggio S., Dupuis M., Studer J., Spilka S., Daeppen J.B., Simon O., Berchtold A., Gmel G. (2016) Reframing video gaming and internet use addiction: empirical cross-national comparison of heavy use over time and addiction scales among young users. Addiction 111(3), p. 513-522.
  • Janssen E. (2016) Assessing the ties of socioeconomic background and gender on the frequency and the type of alcoholic beverages consumed by French adolescents. Journal of Substance Use 21(2), p. 170-176.
  • Baggio S., Spilka S., Studer J., Iglesias K., Gmel G. (2016) Trajectories of drug use among French young people: Prototypical stages of involvement in illicit drug use. Journal of Substance Use 21(5), p. 485-490.
  • Attaiaa L.-A., Beck F., Richard J.-B., Marimoutou C., Mayet A. (2016) Relationships between substance initiation sequence and further substance use: A French nationwide retrospective study. Addictive Behaviors Vol.57, p. 1-5.
  • Devault D.A., Néfau T., Levi Y., Karolak S. (2016) The removal of illicit drugs and morphine in two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) under tropical conditions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research Online first 15/01/2016, doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-6032-z.
  • du Roscoät E., Legleye S., Guignard R., Husky M., Beck F. (2016) Risk factors for suicide attempts and hospitalizations in a sample of 39,542 French adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders Vol.190, p. 517-521.
  • Mayet A., Legleye S., Beck F., Falissard B., Chau N. (2016) The gateway hypothesis, common liability to addictions or the route of administration model? A modelling process linking the three theories. European Addiction Research 22(2), p. 107-117.
  • Bricard D., Jusot F., Beck F., Khlat M., Legleye S. (2016) Educational inequalities in smoking over the life cycle: an analysis by cohort and gender. International Journal of Public Health 61(1), p. 101-109.



  • Legleye S., Guignard G., Richard J.-B., Kraus L., Pabst A., Beck F. (2015) Properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in the general population. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 24(2), p. 170-183.
  • Gilbert F., Richard J.-B., Lapie-Legouis P., Beck F., Vercambre M.-N. (2015) Health behaviors: Is there any distinction for teachers? A cross-sectional nationwide study. PLoS One, 10(3): e0120040.
  • Husky M.M., Michel G., Richard J.-B., Guignard R., Beck F. (2015) Gender differences in the associations of gambling activities and suicidal behaviors with problem gambling in a nationally representative French sample. Addictive Behaviors, 45, p. 45-50.
  • McNeill A., Guignard R., Beck F., Marteau R., Marteau T.M. (2015) Understanding increases in smoking prevalence: case study from France in comparison with England 2000-10. Addiction, 110(3), p. 392-400.
  • Néfau T., Charpentier E., Elyasmino N., Duplessy-Garson C., Levi Y., Karolak S. (2015) Drug analysis of residual content of used syringes: A new approach for improving knowledge of injected drugs and drug user practices. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(4), p. 412-419.



  • Mayet A., Legleye S., Beck F., Khlat M., Chau N., Falissard B. (2014) The gateway hypothesis, common liability to addictions or the route of administration model? An original modelling process linking the three theories. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 49(Sup.1): i52.
  • Attaiaa L.-A., Sicard S., Beck F., Marimoutou C., Mayet A. (2014) Is the order of substance initiation predictive of further substance use and misuse? A French population-based study. European Journal of Public Health 24(Suppl.2 - 7th European Public Health Conference, Glasgow, 21 November 2014), p. 172-173.
  • Peretti-Watel P., Seror V., Verger P., Guignard R., Legleye S., Beck F. (2014) Smokers' risk perception, socioeconomic status and source of information on cancer. Addictive Behaviors 39(9), p. 1304-1310.
  • Jovic S., Genolini C., Delpierre C., Spilka S., Ehlinger V., Ross J., Arnaud C., Godeau E. (2014) Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers. Substance Use and Misuse 49(13), p. 1808-1819.
  • Peretti-Watel P., Legleye S., Guignard R., Beck F. (2014) Cigarette smoking as a stigma. Evidence from France. International Journal of Drug Policy 25(2), p. 282-290.
  • Rennen E., Nagelhout G.E., van den Putte B., Janssen E., Mons U., Guignard R., Beck F., de Vries H., Thrasher J.F., Willemsen M.C. (2014) Associations between tobacco control policy awareness, social acceptability of smoking and smoking cessation. Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys. Health Education Research 29(1), p. 72-82.
  • Legleye S., Beck F., Spilka S., Chau N. (2014) Correction of body-mass index using body-shape perception and socioeconomic status in adolescent self-report surveys. PLoS One 9(5): e96768.
  • Beck F., Guignard R., Legleye S. (2014) Does computer survey technology improve reports on alcohol and illicit drug use in the general population? A Comparison between two surveys with different data collection modes in France. PLoS One 9(1): e85810.
  • Beck F., Legleye S., Chomynova P., Miller P. (2014) A quantitative exploration of attitudes out of line with the prevailing norms toward alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use among European students. Substance Use and Misuse 49(7), p. 877-890.



  • Legleye S., Janssen E., Spilkas., Le Nézet O., Chau N., Beck F. (2013) Opposite social gradient for alcohol use and misuse among French adolescents. International Journal of Drug Policy 24(4), p. 359-366.



  • Legleye S., Kraus L., Piontek D., Phan O., Jouanne C. (2012) Validation of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test in a sample of cannabis inpatients. European Addiction Research 18(4), p. 193-200.
  • Redonnet B., Chollet A., Fombonne E., Bowes L., Melchior M. (2012) Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and other illegal drug use among young adults: The socioeconomic context. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 121(3), p. 231-239.
  • Mayet A., Legleye S., Falissard B., Chau N. (2012) Cannabis use stages as predictors of subsequent initiation with other illicit drugs among French adolescents: Use of a multi-state model. Addictive Behaviors 37(2), p. 160-166.



  • Janssen E. (2011) Drug-related deaths in France in 2007: estimates and implications. Substance Use and Misuse 46(12), p. 1495-1501.
  • Ben Lakhdar C., Bastianic T. (2011) Economic constraint and modes of consumption of addictive goods. International Journal of Drug Policy 22(5, Special focus: Economic recession, drug use and public health), p. 360-365.
  • Mayet A., Legleye S., Chau N., Falissard B. (2011) Transitions between tobacco and cannabis use among adolescents: A multi-state modeling of progression from onset to daily use. Addictive Behaviors 36(11), p. 1101-1105.
  • Legleye S., Janssen E., Beck F., Chau N., Khlat M. (2011) Social gradient in initiation and transition to daily use of tobacco and cannabis during adolescence: a retrospective cohort study. Addiction 106(8), p. 1520-1531.
  • Hunt G., Milhet M., Bergeron H. (dir.) (2011) Drugs and Culture. Knowledge, Consumption and Policy. Burlington, VT (USA): Ashgate, 301 p.
  • Legleye S., Piontek D., Kraus L. (2011) Psychometric properties of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) in a French sample of adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 113(2-3), p. 229-235.



  • Cadet-Taïrou A., Reynaud-Maurupt C., Costes J.-M., Palle C. (2010) Quantitative surveys in hard-to-reach populations: the experience of the 'Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies'. Methodological Innovations Online 5(2) art. 7.
  • Mayet A., Legleye S., Chau N., Falissard B. (2010) The mediation role of licit drugs in the influence of socializing on cannabis use among adolescents: A quantitative approach. Addictive Behaviors, 35(10), p. 890-895.
  • Evrard I., Legleye S., Cadet-Taïrou A. (2010) Composition, purity and perceived quality of street cocaine in France. International Journal of Drug Policy, 21(5), p. 399–406.
  • Legleye S., Beck F., Peretti-Watel P., Chau N., Firdion J. M. (2010) Suicidal ideation among young French adults: association with occupation, family, sexual activity, personal background and drug use. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123(1-3), p. 108-115.
  • Legleye S., Obradovic I., Janssen E., Spilka S., Le Nezet O., Beck F. (2010) Influence of cannabis use trajectories, grade repetition and family background on the school-dropout rate at the age of 17 years in France. European Journal of Public Health, 20(2), p. 157-163.



  • Acquaviva E., Legleye S., Auleley G.R., Deligne J., Carel D., Falissard B. (2009) Psychotropic medication in the French child and adolescent population: prevalence estimation from health insurance data and national self-report survey data. BMC Psychiatry 9(72).
  • Reynaud-Maurupt C., Cadet-Taïrou A., Zoll A. (2009) The contemporary uses of hallucinogenic plants and mushrooms: a qualitative exploratory study carried out in France. Substance Use and Misuse, 44(11), p. 1519-1552.
  • Marzo J.-N., Rotily M., Meroueh F., Varastet M., Hunault C., Obradovic I., Zin A. (2009) Maintenance therapy and 3-year outcome of opioid-dependent prisoners: a prospective study in France (2003–06). Addiction, 104(7), p. 1233-1240.
  • Vaissade L., Legleye S. (2009) Capture-recapture estimates of the local prevalence of problem drug use in six French cities. European Journal of Public Health, 19(1), p. 32-37.



  • Biecheler M.B., Peytavin J.F., Sam Group, Facy F., Martineau H. (2008) SAM survey on "drugs and fatal accidents": search of substances consumed and comparison between drivers involved under the influence of alcohol or cannabis. Traffic Injury Prevention, 9(1), p. 11-21.
  • Legleye S., Ben Lakhdar C., Spilka S. (2008) Two ways of estimating the euro value of the illicit market for cannabis in France. Drug and Alcohol Review, 27(5), p. 466-472.
  • Ben Lakhdar C. (2008) Quantitative and qualitative estimates of cross-border tobacco shopping and tobacco smuggling in France. Tobacco Control, 17(1) p. 12-16.



  • Giraudon I., Bello P.-Y. (2007) Monitoring ecstasy content in France: results from the National Surveillance System 1999-2004. Substance Use and Misuse, 42(10), p. 1567-1578.
  • Peretti-Watel P., Beck F., Legleye S., Moatti J.-P. (2007) Becoming a smoker: Adapting Becker's model of deviance for adolescent smoking. Health Sociology Review, 16(1), p. 53-67.
  • Legleye S., Karila L., Beck F., Reynaud M. (2007) Validation of the CAST, a general population Cannabis Abuse Screening Test. Journal of Substance Use, 12(4), p. 233-242.
  • Peretti-Watel P., Beck F., Legleye S., Moatti J.P. (2007) Becoming a smoker: Adapting Becker’s model of deviance for adolescent smoking. Health Sociology Review, 16(1).
  • Reynaud-Maurupt C., Bello P.-Y., Akoka S., Toufik A. (2007) Characteristics and behaviors of ketamine users in France in 2003. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 39(1), p. 1-11.



  • Peretti-Watel P., Beck F., Legleye S. (2006) Heavy drinking and patterns of sociability at the end of adolescence: a French survey. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 18(1 - Special issue on Adolescence and Alcohol), p. 159-169.



  • Beck F., Brossard C. (2005), « Alcohol abuse in French women. Description of usual settings », Alcoologie et Addictologie, 2004 Yearbook (A selection of eight original articles first published in French in 2004), 27(2 Suppl.), p. 4S-12S.



  • Peretti-Watel P., Legleye S., Beck F. (2002) « Cigarettes and Mobile Phone : are they Complementary or Substitutable Products ? », Drugs : Education, Prevention and Policy, 9(4), p. 339-343.
  • Legleye S., Beck F. (2002), « Cannabis use among 17 year old in France : towards an exploration of problematic uses », European Society for Social Research on Drugs (ESSD), Helsinki, septembre 2002.
  • Beck F., Peretti-Watel P. (2002), « The Impact of Data Collection Methodology on the Reporting of mode de Illicit Drug Use by Adolescents », Population, 57(3), p. 571-591.
  • Peretti-Watel, P., F. Beck, Legleye S. (2002), « More about sport and drug use: context, competition and 'integrative' drugs », Addiction 97(12), p. 1609-1611.
  • Peretti-Watel P., Beck F., Legleye S. (2002), « Beyond the U-curve : the relationship between sport and alcohol, cigarette and cannabis use in adolescents », Addiction 97(6), p. 701-716.



  • Beck F., Korf D. J. (1999) « Links between the use of licit and illicit drugs », in « Joint analysis », European Expert Group on Drug Use Surveys, EMCDDA, pp 39-60.



  • Toufik A. (1993), « Methadone in France : an overview of harm maximisation politics », the International Journal of Drug Policy, 1993, vol 4, 1.

Drugs in Europe

2023 EMCDDA European Drug Report

The European Drug Report 2023: Trends and Developments presents the EMCDDA’s latest analysis of the drug situation in Europe. Focusing on illicit drug use, related harms and drug supply, the report contains a comprehensive set of national data across these themes and key harm-reduction interventions. This report is based on information provided to the EMCDDA by the EU Member States, the candidate country Türkiye, and Norway, in an annual reporting process.

  Statistical Bulletin 2023

The annual Statistical Bulletin contains the most recent available data on the drug situation in Europe provided by the Member States. These datasets underpin the analysis presented in the European Drug Report. All data may be viewed interactively on screen and downloaded in Excel format.

The European Union and the drug phenomenon

miniFAQDrugsEurope.jpgThe European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions, joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.