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Illicit drug supply in France in 2021


In 2021, the quantities seized by the police, the gendarmerie and customs have reached unprecedented levels for marijuana, cocaine and even heroin. In addition, the levels of substances circulating the country from cannabis resin and heroin to cocaine and MDMA/ecstasy are high, while retail prices are fairly stable or down slightly.

Cocaine: a booming market, developments and trends in France (2000-2022)


Based on all the data available to date, this report traces the developments observed over two decades, from the 2000s until 2022, covering three aspects:
  • the boom in cocaine markets across Europe and France;
  • the spread of cocaine consumption – in the form of powder/hydrochloride salt or crack cocaine – and the diversification of users;
  • the public health issues faced by the public authorities in the absence of medical treatment for addiction or substitution for cocaine.

Prescribing opioid analgesics in general practice: results of the Study on the use of analgesic opioid medicines (EMOA)


The French Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (OFDT) publishes the first results of the Study on the use of analgesic opioid medicines (entitled EMOA). This publication questions the practices of general practitioners (GPs) administering initial prescriptions of analgesic opioid medicines in a context of increasing prescriptions of analgesic opioid medicines in the treatment of chronic pain unrelated to cancer over the past ten years, and in connection with the implementation of a pain control policy in France.

How do they prescribe opioid analgesics? How do they deal with situations deemed "problematic"? The sociological analysis presented is based on the testimony of 23 general practitioners practising in different organisational contexts.

Psychoactive substances, users and markets in France in 2021. Assessment of developments in use and access to care, marked by the health crisis linked to Covid-19


This issue looks back on the development of freebase cocaine use among the most vulnerable drug users and their difficulties in accessing care during a year marked by the measures taken in response to the Covid-19 pandemic. It reports on the distribution processes of 3-MMC and ketamine within techno party environments, then examines the evolution of consumption in the context of chemsex and its social and health-related consequences.

Drug use in French 17-year-olds – Analysis of the 2022 ESCAPAD survey


In March 2022, the ESCAPAD survey interviewed a representative sample of 23 701 French girls and boys with an average age of 17.4 years. Since the previous survey in 2017, all levels of drug use have declined, particularly smoking tobacco. A notable exception is the use of electronic cigarettes which is rising sharply, driven by a very marked increase in use among girls. The results confirm the continued increase in the proportion of 17-year-olds who have never drunk alcohol (one in five in 2022), as well as the unfavourable situation of young people in apprenticeships or those who have left the school system for whom the levels of use are always higher than those of high school students. While the 2022 trends are in line with the decline in the distribution of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis observed over the past decade, it should be remembered that this snapshot comes after two years marked by the health crisis linked to Covid-19. The health indicators in the survey describe a far less encouraging picture in terms of health than drug use, with a deterioration in the mental health of part of the adolescent population in 2022.

Cannnabis use in the adult population in 2021


In 2021, the Health Barometer survey conducted by Santé publique France questioned 23 661 French adults about their cannabis use.

Drug use among adolescents in French overseas departements


This document, produced in collaboration with the Regional Health Observatories of Martinique, French Guiana and Réunion, presents the results of the EnCLASS 2021 survey in these three territories.

Drug use and living conditions of unaccompanied minors


This note first reviews the process of administrative recognition of the status of unaccompanied minors and the socio-demographic characterisation of this population. It then discusses the drug uses of unaccompanied minors (recognised or perceived as such) observed since 2016 by the network of eight sites in the OFDT's Emerging Trends and New Drugs (TREND) observation scheme.

Annual 2022 results of the composition of psychoactive products circulating in France


The French National Detection System of Drugs and Toxic Substances (SINTES) is a monitoring program led by the OFDT since 1999, working in close relationship with the Early warning system (EWS) led by the EMCDDA. It is based on the analysis of products collected from users by collectors who return the results after the samples have been analysed by partner forensic laboratories. In 2022, SINTES published an overview of the composition of main illicit psychoactive products circulating in France, stressing in particular the increased traffic of, for example, 3-MMC.

Psychoactive uses of nitrous oxide: access, contexts of use and perceptions of risk


The OFDT has published Tendances No. 151 on the reasons behind the diverted use of nitrous oxide understood through user experiences. In order to document the social contexts of use a qualitative survey based on observations and individual interviews carried out with users has been done by the OFDT’s Emerging Trends and New Drugs (TREND) observation scheme and by Sociotopie, a research group bringing together sociologists and anthropologists.

Contexts, motivations and regulation of video games among adolescents


In the spring of 2021 the OFDT carried out a qualitative study among 30 adolescents aged between 11 and 15 to explore the attractions of video games for adolescents and pre-adolescents and how these video games fit into their daily lives.

Online gambling. Sports betting, e-sport, new gamblers: significant changes observed in 2021


Tendances No. 152 presents the results of the E-Games survey conducted in 2021 with 1 983 panelists. This survey revealed significant changes in gambling practices: the number of players who started betting for the first time in 2021, the significant proportion of bettors for e-sport competitions which are not regulated in France, but also a significant daily practice that concerns all gambling.

Current knowledge on online sports betting


A review of the international literature on online sports betting demonstrates that current knowledge about so-called “problem” sports betting remains largely unknown. Although the data is incomplete among the general population, “excessive” practices have nevertheless been noted, in particular through surveys of Internet users.

Gambling in France in 2021


This assessment offers a summarised view of gambling based on the latest available data. 2021 was marked by a catch-up effect, with all the 2021 indicators showing strong growth in the sector in relation to 2020. The consolidated annual results showed 7% growth for all gambling activities combined. The online gambling market (excluding the lottery) saw record levels of activity, both in terms of operators' turnover (€2.2 billion) and player accounts (5.4 million).

Drugs in Europe

2023 EMCDDA European Drug Report

The European Drug Report 2023: Trends and Developments presents the EMCDDA’s latest analysis of the drug situation in Europe. Focusing on illicit drug use, related harms and drug supply, the report contains a comprehensive set of national data across these themes and key harm-reduction interventions. This report is based on information provided to the EMCDDA by the EU Member States, the candidate country Türkiye, and Norway, in an annual reporting process.

  Statistical Bulletin 2023

The annual Statistical Bulletin contains the most recent available data on the drug situation in Europe provided by the Member States. These datasets underpin the analysis presented in the European Drug Report. All data may be viewed interactively on screen and downloaded in Excel format.

The European Union and the drug phenomenon

miniFAQDrugsEurope.jpgThe European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions, joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.