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- ESCAPAD: Survey on Health and Use on National Defence and Citizenship Day
- ESPAD: European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs
- HBSC: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey
- Health Barometer
- EROPP: Survey on Representations, Opinions and Perceptions regarding Psychoactive Drugs
- RECAP: Common Data Collection on Addictions and Treatments
- Users in low-threshold treatment centres (CSAPA/CAARUD)
- ENa-CAARUD: National survey of low-threshold structures (CAARUDs)
- TREND: Emerging trends and New Drugs
- SINTES: National Detection System of Drugs and Toxic Substances
- Public programme evaluation studies
- ARAMIS: Attitudes, Perceptions, Aspirations and Motivations associated with experimentation with psychoactive substances
- ETINCEL: telephone survey for information about electronic cigarette
- e-JEU survey : online gambling behaviours among French people
Originally conducted on an annual basis from 2000 to 2003, the ESCAPAD survey has been organised on a triennial basis since 2005. It takes place on the National Defence and Citizenship Day (JDC), which has existed since obligatory military service was eliminated in France. Young people participating in a JDC session fill out an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire about their use of legal or illegal psychoactive substances and their health and lifestyle.
In 2011, 200 national armed services centres in mainland France and in overseas French departments conducted the survey for a week and a half in April. In total, 32,249 individuals were surveyed and 29,143 questionnaires were analysed. These mainly 17-year-old French nationals were still in higher education or in training, for the most part. On a given day, JDC participation is 90%, but the coverage rate is much higher (people can be summoned on different days because participation is quasi-compulsory to be allowed to register later on for examinations such as university diplomas and the driver licence).
This survey was initiated Europe-wide in 1995 by the Swedish council for information on alcohol and other drugs with the support of the Council of Europe. It takes place every four years in school settings and targets students aged 16 years - the age at which mandatory schooling is over in the majority of European countries. Data collection takes place in the second quarter of the year of the survey.
The 2011 survey took place in 36 countries, including France for the fourth consecutive year. There was one common questionnaire that focused on use, attitudes and opinions related to drugs. In France, a total of 2,572 students born in 1995, i.e., 15-16 years of age when the 2011 survey was conducted, answered a self-administered questionnaire in a classroom setting in the presence of a health professional.
This is an international survey being conducted every four years since 1982 under the auspices of the European office of the World Health Organisation (WHO). Currently, over 41 countries (including France since 2002) or regions, mainly in Europe, take part and collect standardised information on behaviours that are detrimental to or positive for health in students aged 11, 13 and 15 years. The HBSC survey is self-administered, strictly anonymous and conducted in class under the supervision of a specially trained investigator.
In 2010, 11,754 school-age students from the last year of primary school to the first year of high school were surveyed in public or private establishments in mainland France under contract with the French national education authority. A total of 11,638 questionnaires were analysed.
Since the early 90s, the INPES (French National Institute for Prevention and Health Education), has been conducting, in cooperation with many institutions, a series of surveys which examine the various behaviours and attitudes that the French have regarding health. The health barometer is a telephone health survey of a representative sample of the population of mainland France: nearly 27,700 individuals aged 15 to 85 years took part in the 2010 edition. Conducted from October 2009 to July 2010, this survey was the most recent in a series of five, entitled, "Adult health barometers", conducted in 1992, 1993, 1995, 2000 and 2005. The survey collects information on various health behaviours and attitudes among French people (such as those pertaining to the use of treatments, depression, vaccination, screening practices, physical activity, violence and sexuality). The survey also broaches the subject of legal and illegal drug use using a specific questionnaire designed in partnership with the OFDT, which exploits the data in cooperation with the INPES.
The EROPP survey measures the French population's opinions and perceptions pertaining to psychotropic drugs and the related public actions. The 2013 survey was the fourth. The first three were conducted in 1999, 2002 and 2008. This telephone survey was based on a randomly surveyed, representative sample of the French population aged 15 to 75 years. The sample comprised households with a landline telephone (2,200) and people who used mobile phones only (300 individuals). The data were collected between 27 October and 25 December 2012.
The individuals were questioned about their use, their perception of the level of danger to health, their perception of users and public legal and illegal drug policies.
This system was set up in 2005 and continually collects information about clients seen in National Treatment and Prevention Centres for Addiction (CSAPAs). In the month of April, each centre sends its results from the prior year to the OFDT, which analyses these results. The data collected relate to patients, their current treatment and treatments taken elsewhere, their uses (substances used and substance for which they came in the first place) and their health. The common core questions help harmonise the data collection on a national level and fulfil the requirements of the European Treatment Demand Indicator (TDI) protocol.
In 2011, approximately 96,000 patients seen in 160 outpatient CSAPAs (75%), 18 residential treatment centres (nearly 50%) and 11 prison based CSAPAs (69%) were included in the survey.
In 2010 and 2011, the OFDT developed a "cohort" of drug users seen in specialised centres (CSAPAs, CAARUDs). About one thousand individuals were included. Their status is surveyed regularly, and if applicable, the cause of death is provided.
Conducted every two years since 2006 in all CAARUDs (Support Centre for the Reduction of Drug-related Harms) on mainland France and in French overseas departments, this survey determines the number of users seen in these structures, the characteristics of these users and their use patterns. Each user who enters into contact with the structure during the survey undergoes a face-to-face interview with someone working at the structure. The questions asked are on use (frequency, age of experimentation, administration route), use-related behaviour (injection, equipment-sharing), screening (HIV, HBV and HCV) and social situation (social coverage, housing, level of education, support from friends and family).
The 2012 survey was conducted from 26 November to 7 December: 4,241 completed or "non-responder" questionnaires were conducted in 142 CAARUDs. After eliminating duplicates (299) and "non-responders" (1,037), 2,905 individuals (in 139 CAARUDs) were included in the analysis.
The aim of the TREND scheme, which was established in 1999, is to provide information about illegal drug use and users, and on emerging phenomena. Emerging phenomena refer either to new phenomena or to existing phenomena that have not yet been detected by other observation systems. The observations are conducted in two social settings chosen due to the high likelihood of finding new or not as yet observed phenomena, even though these do not necessarily reflect the entire reality of the drug use in France:
- urban areas, as defined by TREND, mainly cover low-threshold structures (CAARUDs) and open sites (street, squats). Most of the people met and observed in these settings are problem users of illegal drugs living in particularly precarious conditions.
- Techno party settings refer to places where events are organised around techno music. These include so-called “alternative” techno settings (free-party, teknivals) and techno events in clubs, discothèques and private parties.
The system is based on data analysed by seven local coordinating sites (Bordeaux, Lille, Marseille, Metz, Paris, Rennes and Toulouse) that produce site reports, which are then extrapolated to a national level:
- continuous qualitative data collection by the local coordination network, which has a common data collection and information strategy
- the SINTES scheme, an observation system geared towards detecting and analysing the toxicological composition of illegal substances
- recurring quantitative surveys, particularly among CAARUD users (ENa-CAARUD)
- partner information system results
- thematic quantitative and qualitative investigations that aim to gather more information about a particular subject.
The SINTES scheme is intended to document the toxicological composition of illegal substances in circulation in France. The information incorporated in this system comes from two sources:
- the submission to the OFDT of the results of toxicology tests performed on seizures by law enforcement laboratories (French National Forensic Science Institute, Forensic Sciences Institute of the French gendarmerie and Customs laboratories)
- investigations conducted by the OFDT on samples of substances obtained directly from users. These collections are governed by a strict regulatory framework and obtained by specifically trained survey workers.
Since 1999, the OFDT has been evaluating drug-related public policy. The studies conducted are of themes that are of particular interest for current public policy strategies or "key" measures or programmes, or of areas that present an approach to assessing the plans of the French government.
Until now, the work performed has been on a variety of subjects, such as: treatment; prisoner treatment; counselling clinics for young users (CJC); opioid substitution treatments (OST); Harm Reduction (HR); prevention; law enforcement and the penal response; governmental policy evaluation.
ARAMIS: Attitudes, Perceptions, Aspirations and Motivations associated with experimentation with psychoactive substances
To address the urgent need identified by the 2013-2017 French Government Plan for Combating Drugs and Addictive Behaviours to develop effective drug use prevention strategies and meet the recommendations of the collective expert report of the INSERM on adolescent addictive behaviours, the ARAMIS study project aims to explore use trajectories during adolescence, by examining the motivations behind their use and the perceptions associated with various psychoactive substances (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other illegal drugs). By focusing on the intentions of substance users and the reasons for their actions, in relation to their lifestyles and personal situations, it aims to illustrate what contribution social sciences can make to improving our understanding of addictive behaviour during adolescence in order, ultimately, to improve the effectiveness of prevention strategies.
Heavily involved in observing tobacco-related issues, the OFDT wanted to rapidly provide the public authorities and interested professionals with a reliable, initial estimate on the extent of the phenomenon. A survey on electronic cigarettes was conducted in late 2013, a period during which sales of tobacco by the French tobacconist‘s network and sales of treatments to help quit tobacco use were dropping.
This survey was conducted from 12 to 18 November 2013 among a sample of 2,052 individuals aged 15 to 75 years living in Metropolitan France (excluding Corsica). The survey was conducted using a database of randomised land lines stratified by region and community category. The sample selected from this database was created using the quota sampling method (gender, age category and SPC) and was called and interviewed over a one-week period. The results were weighted with the latest INSEE data.
In 2012, the French Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (OFDT) and the Monitoring Centre for Gambling (ODJ)* conducted two coordinated surveys to help determine online gambling behaviours among French people.
An initial telephone prevalence survey (Prévalence- e-JEU survey, ODJ) was conducted as part of the “ Observatoire des usages Internet ” (Internet use survey) conducted by Médiamétrie among a random sample of the Metropolitan French population using CATI (Computer-assisted telephone interview). Two questions intended to measure the prevalence of online gambling were asked of 2,761 French people aged 18 and older during three survey periods (from September to November 2012).
A second, self-administered survey on gambling practices and gambler profiles (e-ENJEU survey, OFDT/ODJ) was conducted on the Internet using Médiamétrie’s “ Carré des médias ” database of Web user addresses. This second survey was conducted weekdays for a period of four weeks. From 12 November to 11 December 2012, 20,000 Internet users aged 18 to 75 were surveyed about their online gambling using CAWI (Computer-assisted web interview).
Drugs in Europe
What do the latest data tell us about the European drug market? What are the new trends in drug use among European adults and school students? What are the harms associated with drug use and what is being done to counter them? These and other questions are explored in the 2018 EMCDDA European Drug Report.
Country drug reports 2017
Developed by the EMCDDA, in cooperation with the Reitox national focal points, these graphic-rich reports cover: drug use and public health problems; drug policy and responses and drug supply.
The European Union and the drug phenomenon
The European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions, joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.