Survey on Health and Use on National Defence and Citizenship Day

Originally conducted on an annual basis from 2000 to 2003, the ESCAPAD survey has been organised on a triennial basis since 2005. It takes place on the National Defence and Citizenship Day (JDC), which has existed since obligatory military service was eliminated in France. Young people participating in a JDC session fill out an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire about their use of legal or illegal psychoactive substances and their health and lifestyle. This is an exhaustive sample.

In 2017, all national armed services centres in mainland France and in overseas French departments were mobilized for a week in April. A total of 43,892 individuals were surveyed and 39,115 questionnaires were analysed in mainland France. These teenagers, mostly aged 17, have the French nationality and are mostly still in school or apprenticeship. On a given day, JDC participation is 90%, but the coverage rate is much higher (people can be summoned on different days because participation is quasi-compulsory to be allowed to register later on for examinations such as university diplomas and the driver licence).


Drug use in 17-year-olds: analysis of the ESCAPAD survey
Tendances n° 123, February 2018

Drug use in 17-year-olds: analysis of the ESCAPAD survey
Tendances n° 100, May 2015

Drug use among 17-year-olds : initial results of the ESCAPAD 2011 survey
Tendances n° 79, February 2012

Drug use among 17-year-olds - Results of the 2008 ESCAPAD survey
Tendances N° 66, June 2009

Drugs at age 17 - Trends, use context and risk-ranking
Tendances N° 49, September 2006

Cannabis, Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in late teens: Level of use and latest evolutions, 2003 ESCAPAD Survey,
Tendances N° 39, September 2004

Recent trends in drug use at the age of 17: ESCAPAD 2000-2002
Tendances N° 29, May 2003

Drug use at the age of 18: principal results from the ESCAPAD 2001 survey
Tendances N° 22, June 2002

The use of psychoactive substances among adolescents in their late teens - Setting up a annual survey
Tendances N° 10, December 2000

Drugs in Europe

2019 EMCDDA European Drug Report

miniEDR2019s.jpgWhat do the latest data tell us about the European drug market? What are the new trends in drug use among European adults and school students? What are the harms associated with drug use and what is being done to counter them? These and other questions are explored in the 2019 EMCDDA European Drug Report.

  Country drug reports 2019

miniCountryProfiles.jpgDeveloped by the EMCDDA, in cooperation with the Reitox national focal points, these graphic-rich reports cover: drug use and public health problems; drug policy and responses and drug supply.

The European Union and the drug phenomenon

miniFAQDrugsEurope.jpgThe European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions, joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.