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Survey on Health and Use on National Defence and Citizenship Day

Originally conducted on an annual basis from 2000 to 2003, the ESCAPAD survey has been organised on a triennial basis since 2005. It takes place on the National Defence and Citizenship Day (JDC), which has existed since obligatory military service was eliminated in France. Young people participating in a JDC session fill out an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire about their use of legal or illegal psychoactive substances and their health and lifestyle. This is an exhaustive sample.

In 2017, all national armed services centres in mainland France and in overseas French departments were mobilized for a week in April. A total of 43,892 individuals were surveyed and 39,115 questionnaires were analysed in mainland France. These teenagers, mostly aged 17, have the French nationality and are mostly still in school or apprenticeship. On a given day, JDC participation is 90%, but the coverage rate is much higher (people can be summoned on different days because participation is quasi-compulsory to be allowed to register later on for examinations such as university diplomas and the driver licence).


Drug use in 17-year-olds: analysis of the ESCAPAD survey
Tendances n° 123, February 2018

Drug use in 17-year-olds: analysis of the ESCAPAD survey
Tendances n° 100, May 2015

Drug use among 17-year-olds : initial results of the ESCAPAD 2011 survey
Tendances n° 79, February 2012

Drug use among 17-year-olds - Results of the 2008 ESCAPAD survey
Tendances N° 66, June 2009

Drugs at age 17 - Trends, use context and risk-ranking
Tendances N° 49, September 2006

Cannabis, Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in late teens: Level of use and latest evolutions, 2003 ESCAPAD Survey,
Tendances N° 39, September 2004

Recent trends in drug use at the age of 17: ESCAPAD 2000-2002
Tendances N° 29, May 2003

Drug use at the age of 18: principal results from the ESCAPAD 2001 survey
Tendances N° 22, June 2002

The use of psychoactive substances among adolescents in their late teens - Setting up a annual survey
Tendances N° 10, December 2000

Drugs in Europe

2023 EMCDDA European Drug Report

The European Drug Report 2023: Trends and Developments presents the EMCDDA’s latest analysis of the drug situation in Europe. Focusing on illicit drug use, related harms and drug supply, the report contains a comprehensive set of national data across these themes and key harm-reduction interventions. This report is based on information provided to the EMCDDA by the EU Member States, the candidate country Türkiye, and Norway, in an annual reporting process.

  Statistical Bulletin 2023

The annual Statistical Bulletin contains the most recent available data on the drug situation in Europe provided by the Member States. These datasets underpin the analysis presented in the European Drug Report. All data may be viewed interactively on screen and downloaded in Excel format.

The European Union and the drug phenomenon

miniFAQDrugsEurope.jpgThe European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions, joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.