European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs

The ESPAD deals with alcohol, tobacco and other drug uses among other lifestyles in adolescents. This survey was initiated Europe-wide in 1995 by the Swedish council for information on alcohol and other drugs with the support of the Council of Europe. It takes place every four years in school settings and targets students aged 16 - the age until which schooling is mandatory in most European countries. Data collection is implemented the second quarter of the year of the survey and follows a common methodology to afford international comparisons over time.

France participates in ESPAD from 1999, with the collaboration of Ministry of National Education and Agriculture (for agricultural vocational education). From 2003, this French participation to ESPAD is under the responsibility and coordination of the OFDT, in collaboration with the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) and the French School of Public Health (EHESP).

The 2015 survey has gathered more than 40 countries, including France for the fifth consecutive exercise. It is based on a common questionnaire focused on use, attitudes and opinions related to drugs, including short country-specific modules.

In France, a national representative sample of 6,712 students, aged from 16 to 18, completed the self-administrated questionnaire in mainland and oversea territories, between March and May 2015. The France-specific topics were:

-    Sport activities and physical or mental doping
-    Depressivity and suicidal thoughts
-    Exposure to alcohol marketing.

The work on alcohol marketing exposure has offered the opportunity to pilot indicators for the development of a scale on alcohol marketing exposure. For more information on this module, click here.

Results will be available by September 2016.


Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use during the « lycée years »
Tendances n° 89, November 2013

Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis at 16 years old - Initial results of the French part of the ESPAD 2007 survey
Tendances N° 64, January 2009

Psychoactive substances amongst middle school and secondary school pupils:use in 2003 and trends over the past ten years
Tendances N° 35, March 2004

Psychoactive Substances Used by the 14-18 Year-Olds Attending School: 1999 ESPAD Survey, 1993-99 evolution
Tendances N° 6, February 2000

Drugs in Europe

2016 EMCDDA European Drug Report

- Drug facts, figures and analyses: across Europe and by country
- Latest trends and legal, political and social responses
- Selected issues: Vulnerable groups of young people; National drug-related research in Europe; Towards a better understanding of drug-related public expenditure in Europe

Country situation summaries

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) website has a concise overview for each EU Member State on their national drug situation, as well as legal texts in their original formats, an indispensable tool for monitoring and analysing legislative developments in the Member States.

The European Union and the drug phenomenon

The European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions , joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.