Survey on Health and Use on National Defence and Citizenship Day

Originally conducted on an annual basis from 2000 to 2003, the ESCAPAD survey has been organised on a triennial basis since 2005. It takes place on the National Defence and Citizenship Day (JDC), which has existed since obligatory military service was eliminated in France. Young people participating in a JDC session fill out an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire about their use of legal or illegal psychoactive substances and their health and lifestyle.

In 2011, 200 national armed services centres in mainland France and in overseas French departments conducted the survey for a week and a half in April. In total, 32,249 individuals were surveyed and 29,143 questionnaires were analysed. These mainly 17-year-old French nationals were still in higher education or in training, for the most part. On a given day, JDC participation is 90%, but the coverage rate is much higher (people can be summoned on different days because participation is quasi-compulsory to be allowed to register later on for examinations such as university diplomas and the driver licence).


Drug use among 17-year-olds : initial results of the ESCAPAD 2011 survey
Tendances n° 79, February 2012

Drug use among 17-year-olds - Results of the 2008 ESCAPAD survey
Tendances N° 66, June 2009

Drugs at age 17 - Trends, use context and risk-ranking
Tendances N° 49, September 2006

Cannabis, Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in late teens: Level of use and latest evolutions, 2003 ESCAPAD Survey,
Tendances N° 39, September 2004

Recent trends in drug use at the age of 17: ESCAPAD 2000-2002
Tendances N° 29, May 2003

Drug use at the age of 18: principal results from the ESCAPAD 2001 survey
Tendances N° 22, June 2002

The use of psychoactive substances among adolescents in their late teens - Setting up a annual survey
Tendances N° 10, December 2000

Drugs in Europe

2016 EMCDDA European Drug Report

- Drug facts, figures and analyses: across Europe and by country
- Latest trends and legal, political and social responses
- Selected issues: Vulnerable groups of young people; National drug-related research in Europe; Towards a better understanding of drug-related public expenditure in Europe

Country situation summaries

The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) website has a concise overview for each EU Member State on their national drug situation, as well as legal texts in their original formats, an indispensable tool for monitoring and analysing legislative developments in the Member States.

The European Union and the drug phenomenon

The European Union & the drug phenomenon : Frequently asked questions , joint publication between the EMCDDA and the European Commission, october 2010, 12 p.